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Mutual Funds: The Evolution and History in India

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Phase I (1964 – 1987) – The Unit Trust of India began its operations in July 1964, making it the first-ever mutual fund in India  UTI’s first product launched was Unit64, which initially held capital of ₹ five crores – attracting the attention of countless investors unlike any other investment scheme since

1978 marked the introduction of open-ended growth funds since UTI was taken over by the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) from the RBI with the mutual funds

By the end of 1988, UTI had over ₹6,700 crores worth of Assets Under Management (AUM)

Phase II (1987 – 1993) – This phase marked the entry of the Public Sector into the mutual fund industry. Analysts claim that the expansion of the industry in this phase encouraged more investors to invest in mutual funds.

Public sector banks like LIC and GIC set up non-UTI public sector mutual funds to enter the market in 1987. The SBI Mutual Fund was launched in 1987 as the first non-UTI mutual fund

Shortly after, the Canara Bank Mutual Fund was established in December 1987

The mutual fund industry had over ₹47 crores of AUM by the end of 1993

Phase III (1993 – 2003) – Between 1991 to 1996, the government realized the urgency to liberalize the Indian economy. They introduced the private sector into the mutual fund Industry, allowing international companies to flood the Indian market.  From 1993 to 1994, various mutual funds launched their schemes like the ICICI Mutual Fund, 20th Century Mutual Fund, Morgan Stanley Mutual Fund, etc.

The poor performance of PSU funds and the failure of foreign funds caused a decline in the industry during 1995-96  33 mutual funds remained standing with total assets worth ₹1,21,805 crores in 2003.Phase IV (2003 – 2014). This period witnessed the most acquisitions and mergers in the mutual fund industry.  In February 2003, UTI was split into two different organizations after the abolition of the Unit Trust of India Act (1963)

The Specified Unit Trust of India operated out of the jurisdiction of the Mutual Fund Regulations, managed solely by the government.

The UTI Mutual Fund was sponsored by SBI, LIC, PNB, and BOB

The mutual fund industry began working towards its consolidation phase to confirm with SEBI regulations and the ongoing string of mergers with the Demat Account Meaning

CURRENT STATUS OF THE MUTUAL FUND INDUSTRY

The Indian Mutual Fund Industry’s assets under management were Rs.36,73,893 on September 30, 2021. In the span of 5 years, from September 30, 2016, to September 30, 2021, the Mutual Fund Industry’s Asset under Management has grown from Rs. 15. 80 trillion to 36.74 trillion, respectively using mutual funds.

CONCLUSION

While the history of mutual funds began in 1963 with the Unit Trust of India, this industry has evolved from being controlled by UTI to balanced public and private participation. Compared to global standards, the Indian mutual fund sector is exceptionally tiny. However, this industry can develop multiple-fold with more significant support from AMFI and the government explaining the Demat Account Meaning.

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